Full Manuscript, v9.7
DECEMBER 11, 2021
This report was prepared by Samantha Custer, Justin Schon, Ana Horigoshi, Divya Mathew, Bryan
Burgess, Vera Choo, Amber Hutchinson, Austin Baehr, and Kelsey Marshall (AidData, William & Mary).
The findings and conclusions of this report are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect
the views of the funders and contributors we thank below.
Rodney Knight supported the research design and quality assurance process to ensure our methods were
appropriate to the task at hand and the results carefully verified for accuracy. Christian Baehr oversaw the
process of geo-referencing our data to allow us to gain more granular insights on the breadth and depth
of China’s overtures at the subnational level. Ammar A. Malik provided helpful feedback on the findings
and conclusions. We thank the respondents who graciously answered our snap poll survey questions,
sharing their insights on their perceptions of foreign powers across the South and Central Asia region,
their views of these powers’ public diplomacy efforts, and their level of current and desired foreign
language proficiency. We appreciate several subject matter experts who shared their time and insights
with us in background interviews in preparation for this report. Our AidData Communications team—John
Custer, Sarina Patterson, and Parker Kim—were instrumental in creating high-impact visuals, along with
the final formatting, layout, and editing which we hope make this report more engaging for you to read.
As the second report in this series on China’s influence in South and Central Asia, we stand on the
shoulders of colleagues who helped collect and analyze the preliminary data on China’s public diplomacy
that offer an empirical foundation for this report. We owe a debt of gratitude for their efforts, including to:
Tanya Sethi, Jonathan A. Solis, Joyce Jiahui Lin, Siddhartha Ghose, Anubhav Gupta, Katherine Walsh,
Brooke Russell, Molly Charles, Steven Pressendo, Wenyang Pan, Paige Jacobson, Ziyi Fu, Kathrynn
Weilacher, Caroline Duckworth, Xiaofan Han, Carlos Holden-Villars, Mengting Lei, Caroline Morin, Wenzhi
Pan, Richard Robles, Yunji Shi, Natalie White, Fathia (Fay) Dawodu, Carina Bilger, Raul De La Guardia,
Xinyao Wang, and Lincoln Zaleski. In addition, we drew upon an expanded team of research assistants to
support a range of supplemental data collection that added new insights to this second report, including:
Hanna Borgestedt, Riley Busbee, Megan Steele, Mikayla Williams, Sarah Dowless, Claudia Segura,
Alondra Belford, Eric Brewer, Daniel Brot, Grace Bruce, Gabriella Cao, Makayla Cutter, Cassie HeymanSchrum, Maureen Lewin, Holden Mershon, Noelle M...